PSY 121 Study Questions

Chapters 5 – 10

For Berger 6th Edition

 

 

1.

The average newborn doubles her birth weight in:

 

A)

two months.

 

B)

four months.

 

C)

six months.

 

D)

the first year.

 

2.

An average, or standard, measurement, calculated from many individuals within a specific group or population is know as a:

 

A)

normal score.

 

B)

standard deviation.

 

C)

percentile.

 

D)

norm.

 

3.

Slow-wave or so-called “quiet” sleep:

 

A)

increases significantly at about 3 or 4 months.

 

B)

is known as “REM” sleep.

 

C)

is known as “paradoxical” sleep.

 

D)

does not truly establish itself until after 2 years of age.

 

4.

REM sleep:

 

A)

is also known as “transitional sleep.”

 

B)

declines after the first months of life.

 

C)

is somewhat less essential than “transitional sleep.”

 

D)

can be equated to slow-wave sleep.

 

5.

A newborn's brain weight is ______ that of an adult's.

 

A)

greater than

 

B)

the same as

 

C)

about one-half

 

D)

about one-quarter

 

6.

The cortex:

 

A)

is the brain's outer layer.

 

B)

is also called the gray matter.

 

C)

is the location of most feeling and sensing.

 

D)

all of the above.

 

7.

The nerve cells of the brain are called:

 

A)

axons.

 

B)

neurons.

 

C)

dendrites.

 

D)

the cortex.

 

8.

Axons are to dendrites as:

 

A)

sending is to receiving.

 

B)

small is to large.

 

C)

baby is to adult.

 

D)

controllable is to automatic.

 

9.

The process by which underused neurons are inactivated is known as:

 

A)

transient exuberance.

 

B)

plasticity.

 

C)

pruning.

 

D)

neuron deactivation.

 

10.

When is the peak growth period of synapses for language?

 

A)

4 months

 

B)

6 months

 

C)

8 months

 

D)

10 months

 

11.

A newborn:

 

A)

is virtually deaf and blind.

 

B)

has all the senses but is immature.

 

C)

perceives the world as alarming and confusing.

 

D)

has all the senses functioning as well as those of an adult.

 

12.

The neonate's vision:

 

A)

is clearest when objects are 4 to 30 inches away.

 

B)

is clearest when objects are about 10 feet away.

 

C)

does not improve until age 1.

 

D)

is the most developed of the senses.

 

13.

Tom will find that his newborn son's hearing is:

 

A)

more sensitive than his vision.

 

B)

sensitive only to sudden noises.

 

C)

too immature to distinguish human voices.

 

D)

more acute than that of adults.

 

 

14.

All reflexes:

 

A)

are essential for life.

 

B)

are involuntary.

 

C)

disappear by 4 months.

 

D)

all of the above are true.

 

15.

Children first walk with their legs spread apart, unsteady and unbalanced. Because of this they are called:

 

A)

waddlers.

 

B)

infants.

 

C)

tipplers.

 

D)

toddlers.

 

16.

When newborns are held horizontally on their stomachs, their arms and legs stretch out. This response is known as the:

 

A)

flying motor skill.

 

B)

swimming motor skill.

 

C)

Moro reflex.

 

D)

Babinski reflex.

 

17.

Sam is able to grab objects but he sometimes closes his hand too early or too late. Sam is probably about:

 

A)

2 months old.

 

B)

4 months old.

 

C)

6 months old.

 

D)

8 months old.

 

18.

At 6 months, Andrew is finally able to sit up unsupported. Probably Andrew is:

 

A)

being breastfed.

 

B)

a healthy infant.

 

C)

brain damaged.

 

D)

malnourished.

 

19.

Approximately ______ children were born between 1950 and the year 2000, according to textbook supposition.

 

A)

4 billion

 

B)

5 billion

 

C)

6 billion

 

D)

7 billion

 

20.

The oldest childhood vaccine is that of:

 

A)

diphtheria.

 

B)

tetanus.

 

C)

measles.

 

D)

polio.

 

21.

What Swiss scientist emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills?

 

A)

Noam Chomsky

 

B)

Eleanor Gibson

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

Jean Piaget

 

22.

Sensorimotor intelligence is characterized as:

 

A)

perceiving and doing.

 

B)

manipulating and evaluating.

 

C)

symbol manipulating.

 

D)

building schemes.

 

23.

Jean Piaget was most interested in:

 

A)

studying how children think.

 

B)

measuring what children know.

 

C)

how parents discipline their children.

 

D)

how peers influence each other.

 

24.

A baby kicks its legs, smiles, and deliberately kicks its legs again. These actions are repeated for several minutes. According to Piaget, this is an example of:

 

A)

repetitious behavior.

 

B)

a primary circular reaction.

 

C)

a secondary circular reaction.

 

D)

accommodation.

 

25.

A baby sees a white bakery bag for the first time and screams with joy. The baby is most likely in the sensorimotor stage:

 

A)

five.

 

B)

four.

 

C)

three.

 

D)

two.

 

26.

Makesha is 8 months old. Research on object permanence would suggest that she:

 

A)

will not yet search for hidden objects.

 

B)

can find an object that has been transferred to a second hiding place.

 

C)

has limited search abilities.

 

D)

will acquire complete object permanence by 10 months.

 

27.

A toddler experimentally varies the way she handles a ball--first squeezing it, then throwing it--in order to learn what effect each variation has. This child is demonstrating:

 

A)

secondary circular reactions.

 

B)

primary circular reactions.

 

C)

quaternary circular reactions.

 

D)

tertiary circular reactions.

 

28.

Attempting to eat spaghetti by trying to put a piece in the ears as well as in the mouth is typical of sensorimotor stage:

 

A)

three.

 

B)

four.

 

C)

five.

 

D)

six.

 

29.

The process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it is referred to as:

 

A)

habituation.

 

B)

assimilation.

 

C)

accommodation.

 

D)

equilibration.

 

30.

If we give a 6-month-old infant a furry toy dog and a rubber rattle, probably the baby will:

 

A)

try to suck on both objects.

 

B)

squeeze both the rattle and the dog.

 

C)

shake the rattle and pat the dog.

 

D)

shake both the dog and the rattle.

 

31.

Objects offer various opportunities, termed by the Gibsons:

 

A)

affordances.

 

B)

circular reactions.

 

C)

deep structures.

 

D)

offerings.

 

32.

Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to:

 

A)

cry throughout the testing.

 

B)

cross over the “visual cliff.”

 

C)

refuse to cross over the “visual cliff.”

 

D)

slide down the slope.

 

33.

According to dynamic perception, 1-year-old Diane would most prefer to look at which of the following:

 

A)

a brightly colored beach ball.

 

B)

a cassette tape with the music of Barney.

 

C)

a mobile spinning over her head.

 

D)

the puzzle being held by her Aunt Cynthia.

 

34.

Billy is 10 months old and has been watching his brother play with a toy piano. The next day Billy crawls over to the piano, which his brother left on the floor, and:

 

A)

does not recognize it.

 

B)

recognizes it but does not know how to “play” it.

 

C)

pushes the keys the way his brother did.

 

D)

pushes it like a truck.

 

35.

Babbling:

 

A)

is found only in infants from the Western Hemisphere.

 

B)

occurs only if the infant can hear.

 

C)

precedes cooing.

 

D)

is universal.

 

36.

Sigmund Freud was a(n):

 

A)

ethological theorist.

 

B)

behaviorist.

 

C)

psychoanalytic theorist.

 

D)

humanistic theorist.

 

37.

Freud's second stage is called:

 

A)

a new adaptation.

 

B)

the anal stage.

 

C)

trust versus mistrust.

 

D)

the oral stage.

 

38.

A toddler in Freud's anal stage would also be at Erikson's:

 

A)

autonomy versus shame and doubt stage.

 

B)

oral stage.

 

C)

trust versus mistrust stage.

 

D)

object permanence stage.

 

39.

If a child successfully resolves Erikson's first stage, she or he can be expected to:

 

A)

be increasingly self-confident.

 

B)

greet strangers with a smile.

 

C)

be an easy baby.

 

D)

explore his or her world.

 

40.

According to Erikson, toddlers usually:

 

A)

want to control their own bodies.

 

B)

want to keep sucking on a pacifier.

 

C)

stay very close to their mothers.

 

D)

learn how to express their ideas through language.

 

41.

Freud and Erikson agree on the:

 

A)

importance of early weaning.

 

B)

need for the mother to be permissive and noncritical.

 

C)

importance of early experience.

 

D)

need for parents to stimulate their children.

 

42.

Dr. Hoemann believes that a child's behavior problems are caused entirely by the parents' use of reinforcements and punishments. Dr. Hoemann is most likely a(n):

 

A)

psychoanalyst.

 

B)

information-process theorist.

 

C)

behaviorist.

 

D)

sociologist.

 

43.

Delilah loves new food and people, whereas Laura tends to get tense when new items are presented. The New York Longitudinal Study considers these to be differences in:

 

A)

rhythmicity.

 

B)

distractibility.

 

C)

approach-withdrawal.

 

D)

attention span.

 

44.

The identical twins of Mrs. Willey have different temperaments, she has discovered: Jill is very sensitive to every noise in the house, while June appears to ignore or not care about the small noises like her sister. Which temperament dimension would this easily fit into?

 

A)

attention span

 

B)

adaptability

 

C)

distractibility

 

D)

threshold of responsiveness

 

45.

Which of the following is a true statement?

 

A)

The social smile, in response to another person, begins to appear about 12 weeks after birth.

 

B)

Very young infants seem incapable of expressing distress and contentment.

 

C)

A 5-month-old baby is likely to display both fear of strangers and separation anxiety.

 

D)

An 11-month-old baby may show anxiety when its mother goes into another room.

 

46.

At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recent emotional reaction is likely to be:

 

A)

fear of strangers.

 

B)

a wide-eyed look of surprise.

 

C)

a social smile.

 

D)

a squeal of delight at her favorite toy.

 

47.

Separation anxiety:

 

A)

is not affected by caregiver behaviors.

 

B)

emerges at about the 9th month.

 

C)

occurs after a favorite toy is taken away.

 

D)

peaks at about 24 months of age.

 

48.

Tammi, age 4 months, and Dawn, age 13 months, are left with a baby-sitter. How will they react?

 

A)

Tammi will be more upset than Dawn.

 

B)

Dawn will probably show more distress than Tammi.

 

C)

Both Tammi and Dawn will be similar in experiencing separation anxiety.

 

D)

Neither is likely to show distress.

 

49.

Children have a limited sense of self in their early months, as is shown by their:

 

A)

failure to respond to their own names.

 

B)

lack of awareness of their own bodies as being theirs.

 

C)

love of the game “peek-a-boo.”

 

D)

inability to talk.

 

50.

Jimmy's Dad comes home from grocery shopping and sees Jimmy sitting on the sofa, eating chips and says “Where's that boy of mine?” Immediately, Jimmy gives his Dad the biggest smile, which spreads across his entire face. Now, Dad responds with an exaggerated surprised look. What is this an example of?

 

A)

psychosocialization

 

B)

synchrony

 

C)

symbiosis

 

D)

polarization

 

51.

Bob quietly watches his infant son, Hamilton, while he sleeps. Bob is engaging in:

 

A)

contact-maintaining behavior.

 

B)

social referencing.

 

C)

synchrony.

 

D)

goodness of fit.

 

52.

All of the following are expressions of insecure attachment except:

 

A)

fear.

 

B)

anger.

 

C)

exploring a new toy.

 

D)

ignoring the caretaker.

 

53.

Harry's mother left him for a few minutes. When she returned, Harry climbed into her lap and then resumed playing. Harry is probably a(n):

 

A)

insecure child.

 

B)

secure child.

 

C)

abused child.

 

D)

neglected child.

 

54.

Which of these is a sign of secure attachment?

 

A)

refusing to let go of the caregiver's arm

 

B)

playing aimlessly with no contact with the caregiver

 

C)

fear and anger

 

D)

attempts to be close to the caregiver

 

55.

Attachment status appears to be determined by:

 

A)

the mother's poverty level.

 

B)

the mother's depth of depression.

 

C)

the mother's responses to her child.

 

D)

the mother's state of mind.

 

56.

Which factor is largely responsible for the great differences in height between children in developed and underdeveloped nations?

 

A)

genes

 

B)

health

 

C)

nutrition

 

D)

exercise

 

57.

The most common disease of young children in developed nations is:

 

A)

anemia.

 

B)

AIDS.

 

C)

insomnia.

 

D)

early tooth decay.

 

58.

The best advice for parents to improve their child's diet and promote healthy eating habits is to:

 

A)

eliminate all “snacks.”

 

B)

offer many healthy foods as alternatives when they become hungry.

 

C)

not set the child up to expect “treats.”

 

D)

cut down on the availability of desserts at the end of lunch and evening meals.

 

59.

The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to:

 

A)

eating healthy foods.

 

B)

myelination.

 

C)

frontal cortex maturation.

 

D)

development of new axons.

 

60.

When their 3-month-old daughter Amber lies down to take a nap, she usually turns her head and bends her limbs to the right. Her parents think this may predict later:

 

A)

academic excellence.

 

B)

right-handedness.

 

C)

poor coordination.

 

D)

creativity.

 

61.

Hamilton asks his Dad to put on a “Thomas the Train” DVD and his Dad complies. No more than 3 minutes into the movie, Hamilton wants to play with his toy cars on the floor. This inability to stay focused on one thing at a time is due to the immaturity of his:

 

A)

parietal cortex.

 

B)

prefrontal cortex.

 

C)

striate cortex.

 

D)

frontal cortex.

 

62.

The reason 6-year-olds are ready to start school is that:

 

A)

they can scan a page of print.

 

B)

they can balance the sides of the body.

 

C)

they can draw and write with one hand.

 

D)

all of the above are good reasons.

 

63.

The best example of a fine motor skill in this list is:

 

A)

using scissors to cut paper.

 

B)

swimming across a pool.

 

C)

roller-skating around the block.

 

D)

playing catch with a football.

 

64.

Preschoolers often have trouble tying their shoelaces because they have inadequate:

 

A)

forearm strength.

 

B)

fine motor skill development.

 

C)

coordination and balance.

 

D)

gross motor skill development.

 

65.

There are more reported than substantiated cases of child maltreatment because:

 

A)

cases may be reported numerous times.

 

B)

even when a report is accurate, it may be difficult to find proof.

 

C)

since reports are based only on suspicion, some reports are subsequently disproven.

 

D)

all of these reasons.

 

66.

Children who are hyperactive, hypervigilant, and confused between reality and fantasy are expressing symptoms of:

 

A)

child abuse.

 

B)

post-traumatic stress disorder.

 

C)

neglect.

 

D)

battered child syndrome.

 

67.

Over time, victims of serious maltreatment are most likely as adults to do which of the following?

 

A)

choose a supportive relationship

 

B)

set unrealistic goals

 

C)

become victims

 

D)

grow out of it

 

68.

The goal in dealing with child maltreatment is to:

 

A)

decide if legal action is needed.

 

B)

provide family counseling.

 

C)

restore children's health.

 

D)

prevent future problems.

 

69.

To Piaget, the difference between cognition during infancy and the preschool years is:

 

A)

understanding object permanence.

 

B)

the reduction in egocentrism.

 

C)

symbolic thought.

 

D)

abstract and scientific thinking.

 

70.

Piaget believed that between the ages of two and six, it is difficult for children to think:

 

A)

subjectively.

 

B)

egocentrically.

 

C)

operationally.

 

D)

all of the above.

 

71.

When Jennie sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she does not recognize her. This is likely due to Jennie's:

 

A)

static reasoning.

 

B)

abstract reasoning.

 

C)

concrete thinking.

 

D)

irreversibility.

 

72.

A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to:

 

A)

be static thinkers.

 

B)

reverse things in their perception.

 

C)

centrate.

 

D)

equilibrate.

 

73.

A child is shown two identical tall containers, half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, that phenomenon would be called:

 

A)

classification.

 

B)

conservation.

 

C)

centration.

 

D)

transformation.

 

74.

The example of having two equal lines of checkers and then increasing the spacing of checkers in one line and asking which line has more checkers is meant to test for:

 

A)

theory of mind.

 

B)

scaffolding.

 

C)

conservation.

 

D)

egocentrism.

 

75.

The stimulation of intellectual growth in children as guided by older and more skilled society

members is:

 

A)

guided participation.

 

B)

equilibration.

 

C)

an apprenticeship in thinking.

 

D)

child-centeredness.

 

76.

In the least-developed nations, the most common teachers are:

 

A)

older siblings.

 

B)

parents.

 

C)

extended family members.

 

D)

special government-funded program instructors.

 

77.

Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providing:

 

A)

scaffolding and structure.

 

B)

overstimulation.

 

C)

conservation skills.

 

D)

peer tutoring.

 

78.

Which of the following examples best demonstrates scaffolding?

 

A)

Elizabeth helps her son prepare meatloaf for dinner. She gives him specific instructions and simplifies whenever possible.

 

B)

Roberto buys his daughter ice cream when she rides her two-wheel bike successfully.

 

C)

Carla decides not to ask her daughter for help, because she knows her daughter does not have much patience.

 

D)

Jason makes his son, Peter, go to bed early, because Peter swore at school.

 

79.

Piaget's view of development included:

 

A)

guided participation.

 

B)

scaffolding.

 

C)

active learning.

 

D)

apprenticeship.

 

80.

Britney understands that her father is crying because his best friend died. This shows that Britney:

 

A)

is egocentric.

 

B)

has a script for crying.

 

C)

has a theory of mind.

 

D)

has learned conservation.

 

81.

When 3-year-old Eric is shown a candy box and asked what is inside, he will probably answer, “Candy.” When he is shown that there are actually pencils inside, Eric will probably:

 

A)

not be surprised that there are pencils inside.

 

B)

predict that other children would expect to find candy inside.

 

C)

say that he thought there would be candy inside.

 

D)

say that he thought there would be pencils inside.

 

82.

A “critical period” view of language learning refers to:

 

A)

the sensitive time for prefrontal cortex development.

 

B)

the only time language can be learned.

 

C)

the best time to learn a language.

 

D)

second-language acquisition.

 

83.

The skills needed to learn to read are called:

 

A)

grammar.

 

B)

emergent literacy.

 

C)

syntax.

 

D)

fast-mapping skills.

 

84.

Logical extension involves:

 

A)

applying a newly learned word to other objects in the same category.

 

B)

mentally charting new words.

 

C)

applying a new concept to a preexistent category.

 

D)

equilibration.

 

85.

The formation of overregularization in a child's speech patterns indicates:

 

A)

that he or she is entering a sensitive period of language development.

 

B)

he or she is able to apply grammatical rules to her vocalizations.

 

C)

logical extension is now possible.

 

D)

that fast mapping has occurred.

 

86.

Emotional regulation develops due to:

 

A)

changes within the brain.

 

B)

learning.

 

C)

both brain changes and learning.

 

D)

peer interaction.

 

87.

In Erikson's third psychosocial stage, a child:

 

A)

eagerly takes on new tasks.

 

B)

has not yet developed a sense of failure.

 

C)

does not react to criticism.

 

D)

does things from the pure joy of being alive.

 

88.

Five-year-old Fred brought a dead bird to his mother. Crying he said, “I'm so sad this little bird died.” His mother might conclude that Fred is:

 

A)

developing emotional intelligence.

 

B)

overly sensitive.

 

C)

aware of his self-concept.

 

D)

precocious.

 

89.

Sara, 3, seeing a little boy fall and hurt himself, gets a look of concern on her face. She is probably experiencing:

 

A)

fear.

 

B)

sadness.

 

C)

empathy.

 

D)

frustration.

 

90.

Which is the best example of reactive aggression?

 

A)

Ralph spanks his daughter when he gets mad.

 

B)

Joanie hits Beth because Beth grabbed her coloring book.

 

C)

Arthur wrestles Richie for fun.

 

D)

Marion punches Arnold for no apparent reason.

 

91.

One thing bullies and their victims have in common is:

 

A)

low tolerance for frustration.

 

B)

future involvement in aggression.

 

C)

a false image of maleness.

 

D)

inadequate emotional regulation.

 

92.

Rough-and-tumble play is least likely to take place:

 

A)

when there is plenty of room for each child to play in.

 

B)

when there are no adults nearby.

 

C)

when children have little social experience.

 

D)

among groups of boys.

 

93.

Diana Baumrind is famous for her work on:

 

A)

the Electra complex.

 

B)

types of play.

 

C)

styles of parenting.

 

D)

cognitive stages.

 

94.

When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, this is what style of parenting?

 

A)

tyrannical

 

B)

authoritative

 

C)

dictatorial

 

D)

authoritarian

 

95.

Mrs. Kaminsky is a very nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:

 

A)

authoritative.

 

B)

permissive.

 

C)

neglectful.

 

D)

authoritarian.

 

96.

A young girl's parents have made a rule but then they make an exception when their daughter gives a good reason. Their parenting style is:

 

A)

authoritative.

 

B)

permissive.

 

C)

authoritarian.

 

D)

inconsistent.

 

97.

Strict and aloof parents tend to have children who are:

 

A)

abusive.

 

B)

overcontrolling.

 

C)

authoritarian.

 

D)

permissive.

 

98.

Compared to Japanese families, North American families of preschool children:

 

A)

encourage more expression that is emotional.

 

B)

encourage less emotional expression.

 

C)

have less aggressive children.

 

D)

have children that are more intelligent.

 

99.

Which of these is a true statement?

 

A)

Only authoritarian parents physically punish their children.

 

B)

Harsh physical punishment and frequent speaking is likely to produce an over-controlled child.

 

C)

Physical punishment of child is unlawful for teachers as well as parents.

 

D)

Ninety-eight percent of North American children were spanked as children.

 

100.

Boys prefer to play with older boys beginning at age:

 

A)

2.

 

B)

4.

 

C)

6.

 

D)

8.

 

101.

Freud's term for our self-critical conscience that internalizes social and parental morals is:

 

A)

identification.

 

B)

superego.

 

C)

ego.

 

D)

schema.

 

102.

The Electra complex is characterized by:

 

A)

frustration in peer relations.

 

B)

sexual feelings towards the father.

 

C)

feelings of low self-esteem and inadequacy.

 

D)

boys wishing they were girls.

 

103.

The Electra complex causes girls to:

 

A)

resent their father because he has a penis.

 

B)

adore their father and resent their mother.

 

C)

prefer their mother to their father.

 

D)

try to make peace when parents fight.

 

104.

When Professor Berger's daughters said, “When I grow up, I'm going to marry Daddy,” that was an example of:

 

A)

modeling.

 

B)

the Electra complex.

 

C)

gender stereotyping.

 

D)

the Oedipus complex.

 

105.

A theorist who believes gender roles are learned through role models is a:

 

A)

cognitive theorist.

 

B)

behaviorist theorist.

 

C)

psychoanalytic theorist.

 

D)

neo-Freudian theorist.

 

106.

Which theory of childhood development would be most likely to discuss the concept of androgyny in a conversation concerning their beliefs?

 

A)

cognitive

 

B)

sociocultural

 

C)

psychoanalytic

 

D)

epigenetic